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Σάββατο, 19 Οκτωβρίου 2013

Μετρό της Στοκχόλμης : Η μεγαλύτερη γκαλερί τέχνης στον κόσμο

Ταξιδεύοντας με το μετρό της Στοκχόλμης είναι σαν να ταξιδεύεις μέσα σε μια συναρπαστική ιστορία που εκτείνεται από τα καλλιτεχνικά δρώμενα της δεκαετίας του 1950 ως και σήμερα. Οι 90 από τους 100 σταθμούς του μετρό είναι διακοσμημένοι με γλυπτά, ψηφιδωτά, πίνακες ζωγραφικής, εγκαταστάσεις, χαρακτικά και ανάγλυφα , έργα περίπου 150 καλλιτεχνών.

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Underground travel in Stockholm goes back a long way. There were two tram lines running in tunnels between Slussen and Skanstull as early as 1933. The first “proper” underground train line – between Slussen and Hokarangen – was opened in 1950, but it took another seven years before the first artworks were installed. [Source]

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In the Stockholm of the 1950s artists Vera Nilsson and Siri Derkert were the prime movers behind the campaign to bring art to the Metro. On 18 April 1955 two motions on art in the Metro were submitted to Stockholm City Council in quick succession, the fi rst by the Left Party, the second by the Social Democratic Party. The motions attracted cross-party support and work was able to begin. [Source]

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Many of the 1950s stations were designed by Peter Celsing. He was the chief architect of the Stockholm Tramways, Stockholm’s Sparvagar, from 1948 to 1952 but is probably better known as the architect behind Kulturhuset, Riksbanken and Filmhuset. [Source]

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Most of the 1960s stations were built below ground, with only a few above ground. 1960s stations that incorporated art from day one include Ostermalmstorg, Mariatorget, Hornstull and Malarhojden. Stations that gained art at a later date, but whose architecture is typical of the 1960s, include Zinkensdamm and Aspudden. [Source]

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Instead of cladding the rock in concrete, as during the 1960s, in the 1970s the approach was to cover the rock face with a layer of sprayed concrete 7 to 8 cm thick. The water was drained away in pipes behind the concrete. The sprayed concrete follows the shape of the rock, giving an illusion of a station in a cave. The first station to be built using this method, Masmo, was completed at the end of 1971 and began to be used in 1972. [Source]

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The typical Metro art of the 1970s included stations designed as a coherent whole, with artists working in long-term partnerships with architects and engineers to create complete environments rather than individual artworks. 1970s stations include Rådhuset, Kungsträdgården, Solna centrum, Näckrosen, Alby, Bergshamra, Rinkeby and Tensta. [Source]

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An important part of SL’s work is to focus on art that is being created now, today. In many cases this is art created by artists who use techniques that would not survive long-term in the tough environment of the Metro – graphics, drawings, paintings and textiles. SL also wants to give more artists the opportunity to show their work in the public space of the Metro, despite no new stations currently being built. Therefore in six of the stations the temporary art is replaced 1 – 4 times a year. [Source]

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